Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) is a type of firefighting foam that has been used for decades to keep deadly liquid and gas flames at bay. Despite being a critical tool for firemen, it has been a major source of debate due to its negative impact on the environment and human health.

This article will explore why AFFF is a huge source of controversy and the challenges of managing and addressing the impact of this firefighting foam on the environment and human health.

The Health Risks Associated With Aqueous Film Forming Foam

Exposure to PFAS has been linked to several adverse health effects, including cancer, hormonal disruption, immune system dysfunction, and developmental delays. Long-term exposure to PFAS has been shown to cause liver damage, decreased fertility, and other health issues.

Firefighters and military personnel are particularly at risk of exposure to AFFF and PFAS, as they are most frequently exposed to the foam during training exercises and emergency responses. PFAS can enter the body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact and can accumulate in the body over time, leading to long-term health effects.

In response, many firefighters have come together and filed a lawsuit against the manufacturers of AFFF, claiming that the companies knew about the dangers of the chemicals in their products but failed to warn users or take action to prevent exposure. 

It is important to consider how the use of such dangerous chemicals also significantly affects families, and the government needs to realize that these are essential people to our society.

The potential AFFF lawsuit settlement amounts are difficult to predict as they depend on various factors, including the number of plaintiffs involved in the lawsuit, the severity of their injuries or damages, and the strength of the evidence presented.

However, previous events suggest that the settlement amounts could be significant. For example, in 2017, 3M, one of the manufacturers of AFFF, agreed to pay $850 million to settle a similar lawsuit involving water contamination caused by PFAS chemicals.

The Environmental Impact Of Aqueous Film Forming Foam

AFFF is used extensively to extinguish fires involving flammable liquids and gases. However, using the chemical has been linked to significant environmental impacts, particularly on aquatic ecosystems. The primary environmental concern associated with AFFF is its high levels of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), toxic chemicals that persist in the environment and accumulate in living organisms.

When AFFF is used to extinguish fires, the foam can enter the soil and water, leading to contamination of groundwater and surface water. Once released, the PFAS in AFFF can travel long distances through groundwater and persist in the environment for decades. 

This can lead to the contamination of drinking water sources and the accumulation of PFAS in aquatic organisms, including fish and shellfish, which can result in human exposure through consumption.

The impact of PFAS on human health is a growing concern, with studies linking exposure to various health effects, including developmental issues, liver damage, and cancer. 

In an internal study done by the Defence Department, more than 24 bases and 175,000 troops were affected due to PFAS. Furthermore, the potential for long-term exposure through contaminated drinking water sources poses a significant risk to public health.

The widespread use of AFFF has led to a nationwide crisis in contaminated water supplies. In some cases, the levels of PFAS in drinking water sources have exceeded the EPA health advisory level, which is set at 70 parts per trillion. The problem of clean water in the US has always been linked to PFAS, permeating various industries.

The environmental impact of AFFF has led to increased scrutiny of its use by regulatory agencies, and there have been efforts to find safer alternatives. Some fire departments have switched to fluorine-free foams and other firefighting methods to reduce their environmental impact. 


The use of AFFF has led to widespread contamination of water supplies, which poses a significant risk to public health.

The resulting lawsuits against AFFF manufacturers, and the potential AFFF lawsuit settlement amounts, reflect the seriousness of the harm caused by the foam and the need for accountability and justice for those affected.

Overall, the AFFF controversy highlights the importance of taking a precautionary approach to chemicals and products that have the potential to cause harm to human health and the environment. It also underscores the importance of holding corporations accountable for their actions and protecting the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

Ultimately, the goal should be to protect public health and the environment by reducing our reliance on hazardous chemicals and finding safer alternatives.